Russian church music began with the famous chant that arose during the baptism of Russia. Its name is associated with the use of special notation signs – “banners” for its recording. Their intricate names are associated with a graphic image: a bench, a darling, a cup, two in a canoe, etc. Visually, banners (aka hooks) are a combination of dashes, dots, and commas. Each banner contains information about the duration of sounds, their number in a given motive, the direction of the melody and the characteristics of the performance. The intonations of the znamenny chant were assimilated by the singers and parishioners of the church according to rumors from the masters of znamenny singing, since the banners did not record the exact pitch of the sound. Only in the XVII century. the appearance in the texts of special cinnabar (red) droppings made available the designation of the pitch of the hooks. Continue reading
We immediately warn that it is very difficult to answer the question in one article what genres of music are. So many genres have accumulated in the history of music that one cannot even measure them with arshin: chorale, romance, cantata, waltz, symphony, ballet, opera, prelude, etc. For several decades, musicologists have been breaking their spears, trying to classify musical genres (by the nature of the content, by function, for example).
But before dwelling on typology, let us clarify the very concept of the genre.
WHAT IS A MUSIC GENRE?
Genre is a kind of model with which specific music is related. He has certain conditions of execution, purpose, form and nature of the content. So, the purpose of the lullaby is to calm the baby, so the “swaying” intonations and the characteristic rhythm are typical for her; on the march – all the expressive means of music are adapted to a clear step. Continue reading
You have probably come across such philosophical concepts as form and content. These words are universal enough to denote similar aspects of the most diverse phenomena. And music is no exception. In this article you will find an overview of the most popular forms of musical works. Before calling the common forms of musical works, let us determine what exactly is form in music? Form is what relates to the design of a work, to the principles of its structure, to the sequence of conducting musical material in it. The form of musicians is understood in two ways. On the one hand, the form is a layout of all parts of the musical composition in order.
On the other hand, form is not only a scheme, but also a process of formation and development in a work of those expressive means by which an artistic image of a given work is created. What are these expressive means? Melody, harmony, rhythm, timbre, register and so on. The rationale for such a double understanding of the essence of musical form is the merit of the Russian scientist, academician and composer Boris Asafiev. Continue reading