Musical literature Main musical genres
Today's post is devoted to the topic - the main musical genres. To begin with, let's decide what we will consider the musical genre. After that, genres proper will be…

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How to learn to sing high notes
High notes can be difficult for beginner vocalists, and more so for those who did not sing in the choir during their childhood. You can learn to sing them correctly…

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How to come up with a band name that will bring success?
The name of the group for many leaves the first impression from the musical collective, which remains forever. A sonorous and easy to remember name will immediately stand out among…

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P.I. Tchaikovsky: through thorns to the stars

A very long time ago on the southwestern borders of Russia, in the steppes of Ukraine, there lived a freedom-loving Cossack family with a beautiful surname Chaika. The history of this kind goes back centuries when the Slavic tribes mastered the steppe fertile lands and were not yet divided into Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians after the invasion of the Mongol-Tatar hordes. The Tchaikovsky family loved to remember the heroic life of the great-grandfather Fyodor Afanasevich Chaika (1695-1767), who, with the rank of centurion, actively participated in the defeat of the Swedes by the Russian troops near Poltava (1709). In that battle, Fedor Afanasevich was seriously wounded. Around the same period, the Russian state began to assign each family a permanent surname instead of nicknames (non-baptismal names). The composer’s grandfather chose his family name Tchaikovsky. Such surnames ending in “sky” were considered noble, as they were given to the families of the nobility. A noble title was awarded to his grandfather for “faithful service to the Fatherland.” In the Russian-Turkish war, he performed the most humane mission: he was a military doctor. The father of Peter Ilyich, Ilya Petrovich Tchaikovsky (1795-1854), was a famous mining engineer. Meanwhile, in France, from time immemorial, lived a clan bearing the name Assier. Who, on the land of the Franks, would then have thought that in centuries, in the cold distant Muscovy, their descendant would become a world star, would glorify the Tchaikovsky and Assyers clans for centuries. The mother of the future great composer, Alexandra Andreyevna Tchaikovskaya, wore the surname Assier (1813-1854) as a girl, often told her son about her grandfather Michel-Victor Assier, who was a famous French sculptor, and about his father, who in 1800. He came to Russia and stayed here to live (he taught French and German). Fate brought these two genera together. And April 25, 1840 in the Urals in the then small village at the Kamsko-Votkinsk plant Peter was born. Now it is the city of Votkinsk, Udmurtia. Parents loved music. Mom played the piano. Sang. Father loved to play the flute. Amateur musical evenings were held at home. Music early entered the consciousness of the boy, captivated him. Particularly strong impression on little Peter (in the family his name was Petrush, Pierre) was made by the father bought an orchestra, a mechanical organ equipped with shafts, during the rotation of which music was born. Zerlin’s aria from Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni and arias from the operas Donizetti and Rossini sounded. At the age of five, Peter used themes from these musical works in his fantasies on the piano. From early childhood, the boy was indelibly impressed by protracted sad folk tunes that could be heard on quiet summer evenings in the vicinity of the Votkinsk plant. Then he fell in love with walks with his sister and brothers, accompanied by his beloved governess Frenchwoman Fanny Durbach. Often we went to a picturesque rock with the fabulous name “Old Man and Old Woman”. There echoed in a mysterious way … Boating on the Natva River. It is possible that from these walks the habit was born, whenever possible, of doing many hours of walking every day in any weather, even in rain and frost. Walking in nature, an already adult, world famous composer drew inspiration, mentally composed music, and found comfort from the problems that had plagued him all his life. The connection between the ability to understand nature and the capacity for creativity has long been noticed. The famous Roman philosopher Seneca, who lived two thousand years ago, said: “Omnis ars naturae imitatio est” – “all art is an imitation of nature”. Sensitive perception of nature, refined contemplation gradually formed in Tchaikovsky the ability to see what is not accessible to others. And without this, as you know, it is impossible to fully comprehend what he saw and materialize in music. For the special sensitivity, impressionability of the child, the fragility of his nature, the teacher called Peter “the glass boy”. Often with delight or sadness, he came into a special exalted state and even began to cry. Once he shared with his brother: “There was a minute, an hour ago, when I was so overwhelmed with delight among the wheat fields adjacent to the garden that I fell on my knees and thanked God for the entire depth of the tested bliss.” And in adulthood, there were often cases like what happened during the compilation of the Sixth Symphony, when during walks, mentally constructing, drawing significant musical fragments, tears came to my eyes. Preparing to write the opera Orleans Maiden about the heroic and complete drama of the fate of Joan of Arc, studying the historical materials about her, the composer admitted that “… I experienced too much pressure of inspiration … For three days I was tormented and tormented that there was so much material, and human strength and time so little! Reading a book about Joan of Arc and reaching the process of abjuration (renunciation) and the execution itself … I am terribly cried. “I suddenly felt so terribly, painful for all of humanity, and took indescribable longing!”

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