What are the genres of music?
We immediately warn that it is very difficult to answer the question in one article what genres of music are. So many genres have accumulated in the history of music that one cannot even measure them with arshin: chorale, romance, cantata, waltz, symphony, ballet, opera, prelude, etc. For several decades, musicologists have been breaking their spears, trying to classify musical genres (by the nature of the content, by function, for example).
But before dwelling on typology, let us clarify the very concept of the genre.
WHAT IS A MUSIC GENRE?
Genre is a kind of model with which specific music is related. He has certain conditions of execution, purpose, form and nature of the content. So, the purpose of the lullaby is to calm the baby, so the “swaying” intonations and the characteristic rhythm are typical for her; on the march – all the expressive means of music are adapted to a clear step. What are the genres of music: Classification The simplest classification of genres – by the method of execution. These are two large groups: instrumental (march, waltz, etude, sonata, fugue, symphony) vocal genres (aria, song, romance, cantata, opera, musical). Another typology of genres is related to the performance environment.
It belongs to A. Sohor – a scientist who claims that music genres are: ritual and cult (psalms, mass, requiem) – they are characterized by generalized images, the dominance of the choral principle and the same mood among the majority of listeners; mass everyday (varieties of song, march and dance: polka, waltz, ragtime, ballad, anthem) – differ in simple form and familiar intonations; concert genres (oratorio, sonata, quartet, symphony) – characteristic performance in the concert hall, lyrical tone as the author’s self-expression; theatrical genres (musical, opera, ballet) – require action, plot and scenery. In addition, the genre itself can be divided into other genres. So, opera-seria (“serious” opera) and opera-buffa (comic) are also genres. At the same time, there are several more varieties of opera that also form new genres (lyric opera, epic opera, operetta, etc.)
NAMES OF GENRES
You can write a whole book about what names exist in music genres and how they appear. . Names can tell about the history of the genre: for example, the name “kryzhok” dance is obliged by the fact that the dancers were located on a cross (from the Belarusian “kryzh” – a cross). Nocturne (“night” – translated from French) was performed at night in the open air. Some names originate from the names of instruments (fanfare, muset), others – from songs (Marseillaise, Camarine). Often music receives the name of the genre when it is transferred to another medium: for example, folk dance – into ballet. But it happens the other way around: the composer takes the theme “Seasons” and writes a work, and then this theme becomes a genre with a certain form (4 seasons as 4 parts) and the nature of the content.
INSTEAD OF CONCLUSIONS
Speaking about what genres of music are, one cannot fail to mention a common mistake. This is a confusion in concepts when such styles as classical, rock, jazz, hip-hop are called genres. It is important to remember that the genre is the scheme on the basis of which the works are created, and the style indicates rather the features of the musical language of creation.