So, the structure of chords is a topic that we will develop today. And, first of all, let’s turn to the definition of a chord, specify what it is. A chord is a consonance, a sound complex. In a chord, at least three sounds should be sounded at once or one after another, because harmonies in which only two sounds are called differently are intervals. And yet, the classic definition of a chord says that the sounds of a chord are either already arranged in thirds, or they can be arranged in thirds when rearranged.
This last point, just, is directly related to the structure of the chord. Since modern harmony has gone far ahead of the standards established by the music of classical composers, this last remark about the arrangement of sounds by chords in a chord is not applicable to some modern chords, since their structure is based on a different principle for constructing a chord. There were such consonances in which there may be three sounds or even more, but with all the desire, even if you try very hard, you can’t locate them in any way, but only, for example, in septims or seconds. What is the structure of the chords? What follows from all this?
Firstly, it follows that the structure of chords is their structure, the principle by which the tones (sounds) of the chord are located. Secondly, it also follows from the foregoing that the structure of chords is of two types: tertz (classical version) and nethertz (mainly characteristic of XX century music, but it has been encountered before). True, there is still a kind of chords with the so-called complicated tertz structure – with replaced, missing or additional tones, but we will not consider this subspecies separately.
CHERGES WITH A TERZ STRUCTURE
With a tertz structure, chords are built from sounds arranged in thirds.
This structure is possessed by different types of chords: triads, seventh chords, non-chords along with their appeals. The figure depicts just examples of such chords with a tertz structure – as Alexei Kofanov says, they are somewhat reminiscent of snowmen. Now let’s look at these chords as if under a magnifying glass. The structure of the chords is formed by the intervals that make up a given chord (for example, the same thirds), and the intervals, in turn, are composed of individual sounds, which are called the “tones” of the chord. The main sound of the chord is its base, the rest of the tones will be called in the same way as the intervals that these tones form with the base – that is, third, fifth, septima, nona and so on. The names of all intervals, including the wide compound ones, can be repeated using the materials on this page. The structure of the chords is reflected in their name. Why do I need to determine the name of the tones in the chord? For example, in order to give a name to the structure of the chord.
For example, if a septimal interval is formed between the base and the uppermost chord sound, then the chord is called the seventh chord, if nona then the non-chord, if undecimal, then, accordingly, undecimakkord. With the help of structure analysis, you can give a name to any other chords, for example, to all calls of the dominantsept chord. So, in D7, in its main form, all sounds are arranged in thirds and between the base of the chord and its uppermost tone an interval of small septima is formed, which is why we call this chord a seventh chord. However, in D7 calls, the tone arrangement is different. The first appeal of this seventh chord is a fifth-fifth chord. The name is given to him by the way the septima (upper tone D7) and the main tone correspond to the bass of the chord, which intervals are formed.
The main tone in our example is the note salt, sierce, re – quit, and f – septima. We see that the bass in this case is the si note, the distance from the si note to the fa note, which is the septima, is the fifth, and the salt (the base of the chord) is the sixth to the note. So it turns out that the name of the chord is made up of the names of two intervals – fifths and sixths: a fifth-fifth chord. Terz-quart chord – where does its name come from? The bass of the chord in this example is the re note, everything else is still called. The distance from re to fa (septima) is thirds, the interval from re to salt (base) is a quart. Now it’s all clear. Now let’s figure it out with a chord. So, the bass note in this case becomes Mrs. Septima herself – the note fa. From fa to fa, prima, and the interval from the note fa to the base, salt is a second. The exact name of the chord should have been pronounced as a prim-second chord. For some reason, the first root in this name is omitted, apparently for convenience, and maybe because there is no interval between the septima and septims – there is no repetition of the note fa. You can object to me. How can these all sorts of fifths and second chords be classified as tertiary chords? Indeed, in their structure there are other intervals than thirds – for example, quarts or seconds. But here you need to keep in mind that these chords are not nuggets by nature.