Music-Education.ruLikbez What are the styles of music?
What are the styles of music? Musical style is a capacious and multifaceted concept. It can be defined as a figurative unity, a combination of means of expressing artistic and ideological content using the language of music. The concept of the style of music is so broad that its concretization itself suggests itself: this term refers to different eras, genres, directions and schools, as well as to individual composers and even performers. Let’s try to figure out what styles of music are.
STYLE OF EPOCH The concept of the style of the era focuses on the historical aspect. There are many classifications, some of which distinguish the largest historical epochs in the development of music (Renaissance, Baroque, Classicism, Modernity, etc.), while others, on the contrary, divide the history of music into relatively short periods, previously allocated by other art disciplines (romanticism , impressionism, modernism, etc.). A classic example of the style of the era is Baroque music, the characteristic features of which are interest in the inner world of the personality, drama, a contrasting image of the forces of nature, the development of opera and instrumental music (C. Monteverdi, A. Vivaldi, G.F. Handel).
The style of the genre reflects the specifics of the content, musical techniques and features of various musical genres, which, in turn, can be classified for various reasons. Therefore, the concept of style is most acceptable for those genres in which the most common features are pronounced. These include genres based on folk music (various ritual songs, folk dances), church songs, romances. If we take the works of large forms (opera, oratorio, symphony, etc.), then here the style of the genre is always clearly read, despite the fact that the styles of the era, direction and author’s style are superimposed on it. But if the composer comes up with some new genre, then in this case it is difficult to establish the features of the genre style right away – for this, time must pass, during which other works in the same genre will appear. So it was, for example, with Mendelssohn’s “songs without words”. Agree, a strange song without words, however, after its 48 samples of plays in this genre, other composers began to boldly call their plays by the same name.
MUSICAL DIRECTION STYLE
The style of the musical direction is in many respects in line with the style of the era: after all, some areas are considered by musicologists as whole epochs in music. But there are also areas for which it is possible to single out stylistic nuances peculiar only to them. These include the Vienna Classical School (L. van Beethoven, J. Haydn, V.A. Mozart). The classical direction is characterized by simplicity, expressiveness, rich harmonious language, detailed development of the theme. Speaking about what are the styles of music, you can not pass by national characteristics.
The basis of the national musical style is the folklore beginning. Many great composers were inspired by folk melodies, weaving them into their creations. Some works even have corresponding names (for example, the Hungarian rhapsodies of F. Liszt, “Hungarian Dances” by I. Brahms, “Norwegian Folk Songs and Dances for Piano” by E. Grieg, “Aragonese Hota” by M.I. Glinka). In others, folk motifs become leading topics (for example, “In the field, a birch stood” in the finale of the Fourth Symphony by P. I. Tchaikovsky). If we approach the question of what styles of music are, from the point of view of composer schools, individual composers and musicians, we can distinguish several more musical styles.
STYLE OF COMBINING COMPOSERS
If a composer school is characterized by a high degree of generality of artistic techniques, it is logical to highlight the style inherent in this school. You can talk about the styles of polyphonic schools of the Renaissance, the styles of various Italian opera schools of the 17th century or the styles of instrumental schools of the 17th – 18th centuries. In Russian music of the 19th century, there was also a creative association of composers – the famous “Mighty Handful”. The stylistic community among the composers included in this group was manifested in a single line of development, choice of subjects, reliance on Russian musical folklore.
STYLE OF A SEPARATE COMPOSER
Composer style is a concept that is much easier to specify, because the work of any composer is limited by a relatively short time period and certain trends of the musical era. So, literally from the first bars you can find, for example, the music of Mozart or Rossini. Naturally, the composer, like any person, changes throughout his life, and this leaves an imprint on the style of his work. But some style features still remain unchanged, inherent only to him, are a kind of “visiting card” of the author.
Performing art is based on the individual manner of performing a musician who interprets the composer’s intent in his own way. Performing style is manifested in the emotional coloring of the performance of works.